Nipah Virus in India: Causes, Symptoms, and Prevention

Nipah Virus

What is Nipah virus?

Nipah virus (NiV) is a zoonotic disease that can be transmitted from animals to humans and can cause severe and fatal infections. The virus belongs to the family of paramyxoviruses, which also includes measles, mumps, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). The natural hosts of NiV are fruit bats of the genus Pteropus, also known as flying foxes1. NiV can also infect pigs, horses, dogs, cats, and other animals2.

How does Nipah virus spread?

NiV can spread through direct contact with infected animals or their body fluids, such as saliva, urine, or blood. For example, NiV was first identified in 1998 in Malaysia, where it caused an outbreak among pig farmers who had contact with sick pigs or their tissues3. NiV can also spread through consumption of contaminated food, such as fruits or fruit products that have been bitten by infected bats. For instance, NiV outbreaks in Bangladesh and India have been linked to drinking raw date palm sap that was contaminated with bat urine or saliva4. NiV can also spread from person to person through close contact with infected patients or their secretions. This mode of transmission has been observed in hospital settings and among family members or caregivers of NiV patients5.

What are the symptoms of Nipah virus infection?

The incubation period of NiV infection, which is the time between exposure and onset of symptoms, ranges from 4 to 14 days, but can be as long as 45 days6. The symptoms of NiV infection vary from mild to severe and can include:

  • Fever
  • Headache
  • Muscle pain
  • Cough
  • Sore throat
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Vomiting
  • Dizziness
  • Drowsiness
  • Confusion
  • Seizures
  • Coma

NiV infection can cause inflammation of the brain (encephalitis), which can lead to neurological complications and death. NiV infection can also cause acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which is a severe lung condition that impairs oxygen delivery to the body. The mortality rate of NiV infection is estimated to be between 40% to 75%, depending on the outbreak and the quality of health care7.

How is Nipah virus diagnosed and treated?

NiV infection can be diagnosed by laboratory tests that detect the presence of the virus or its antibodies in blood, urine, throat swabs, cerebrospinal fluid, or tissues. However, these tests require biosafety level 4 facilities, which are not widely available in many countries8. Therefore, clinical diagnosis based on symptoms and exposure history is often used to identify suspected cases.

There is no specific treatment or vaccine for NiV infection. The management of NiV infection consists of supportive care, such as hydration, oxygen therapy, anticonvulsants, and antibiotics for secondary infections. In some cases, experimental drugs such as monoclonal antibodies or antivirals may be used under compassionate use or clinical trial protocols9.

How can Nipah virus be prevented?

The prevention of NiV infection requires a multi-pronged approach that involves:

  • Reducing the risk of exposure to infected animals or their fluids by avoiding contact with sick or dead animals, wearing protective equipment when handling animals or animal products, and disposing of animal carcasses properly.
  • Reducing the risk of exposure to contaminated food by washing fruits and vegetables before consumption, boiling or pasteurizing date palm sap before drinking, and avoiding fruits that have signs of bat bites.
  • Reducing the risk of person-to-person transmission by isolating suspected or confirmed cases in hospitals or designated facilities, wearing personal protective equipment when caring for patients or handling their specimens, and practicing good hygiene and infection control measures.
  • Enhancing surveillance and reporting of suspected or confirmed cases to health authorities for timely detection and response.
  • Raising awareness and education among the public and health workers about the signs, symptoms, modes of transmission, and prevention measures of NiV infection.
  • Strengthening collaboration and coordination among different sectors and stakeholders, such as animal health, human health, environment, agriculture, wildlife, and research.


Nipah virus is a deadly zoonotic disease that can cause severe infections in humans and animals. It can spread through direct contact with infected animals or their fluids, consumption of contaminated food, or person-to-person contact. The symptoms of NiV infection range from mild to severe and can include fever, headache, respiratory illness, encephalitis, and death. There is no specific treatment or vaccine for NiV infection. The prevention of NiV infection requires a comprehensive approach that involves reducing exposure to infected animals or their fluids, contaminated food, or infected patients, enhancing surveillance and reporting of cases, raising awareness and education, and strengthening collaboration and coordination among different sectors and stakeholders.

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